Gender Gap

Misogyny, as Oxford dictionary describes is the “Dislike of, contempt for, or ingrained prejudice against women“.


After Julia Gillard was voted into the role of the first female Prime Minister in 2010, she brought to attention some important details. In 2012, Julia was “driven to make a powerful speech on misogyny, which reverberated around the world.” Marian Sawr states that “the arrival of a woman Prime Minister helped bring into the open the gendered nature of politics.”

“Many conservative and libertarian women also take a remarkable amount of sexual-political abuse …women are expected to hold liberal views just by virtue of being female — [which] can become a license for allegedly progressive men to demean and dehumanize women who decline to play that part.” This identity-based discrimination needs to be acknowledged by the public, rather than being a secret known only to people in these important workplaces.

One potential magnifier of this issue, of course, is the Internet, which by its nature, creates what feels like a consequence-free zone for the abuser, where women are supposed to read these comments and “shrug it off”, says Ross Douthat from the New York Times, well, it’s easier said than done.

The fact that “two thirds of women journalists face intimidation” has created a large debate, why have these threats been suppressed? Why is no-one talking about it? Sixty-four percent of the 875 female journalist respondents to the International Women’s Media Foundation’s online survey said they had experienced “intimidation, threats, or abuse” in the office or in the field. Female journalists don’t want to be abused in the course of our employment— the majority of women who are harassed do not report what has happened to them, despite the fact that more than half of them confirmed that the experience had a psychological impact.

“This kind of Trolling is a certain kind of evil: the rationale is inconsistent, the victim often random, the motives unfathomable to any decent person. But the vast majority of the targets for obscene, violent abuse are female.” The victims often not wanting to read their email or check their twitter in fear of this online cyber-bullying style of abuse attacking them.


Women bloggers call for a stop to ‘hateful’ trolling by misogynist men | World news | The Observer . [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 15 May 2014].

Misogyny and misrepresentation . [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 15 May 2014].

Turning around the online abuse against female journalists – Taipei Times. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 15 May 2014].

Sexual harassment in journalism: A new study shows that the majority of female journalists have been abused, threatened, assaulted, or harassed.. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 15 May 2014].

Twitter opens a new world of abuse aimed at women. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 15 May 2014].


Two-thirds of women journalists face intimidation, abuse: Survey – The Hindu . [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 15 May 2014].

misogyny: definition of misogyny in Oxford dictionary (British & World English). [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 13 May 2014].

The War On Women: The New York Times. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 14 May 2014].






The #BringBackOurGirls campaign is an example of clicktivism, which, if you do a quick internet search you can find countless social media sites containing the hashtag, read here for more information. New Yorker Journalist, Malcolm Gladwell believes that clicktivism has made us “forget what activism is,” stating that social media relationships are built around “weak ties,” which “seldom lead to high-risk activism.”  “Digital activists hide behind gloried stories of viral campaigns and inflated figures of how many millions signed their petition in 24 hours.” An example of this is, their beautiful websites paint a “dazzling self-portrait. But, it is largely a marketing deception.” I myself am a member of, but rarely sign petitions unless I think it will actually impact the campaign’s outcome. While these organisations are staffed by “well-meaning individuals who sincerely believe they are doing good, a bit of criticism from there leaders may be needed. The people signing these petitions need to be correctly informed.” says Micah White from The Guardian.

“Opponents of “slacktivism” say that it accomplishes very little and encourages people to be lazy.” After retweeting or sharing the story, you are often not inclined to take any further action than just that. This often causes reactions to campaigns such as Kony 2012, to be “emotionally propelled, rather than informed. Social media provided citizens a platform for, yes, digital activism, but more importantly, collective activism. The role of social is undeniable: Twitter and Facebook allowed people to organize a revolution.”

This activism doesn’t just stay online either, many protests have started in many countries, including Nigeria, demanding action and the safe return of the kidnapped girls. It’s clear that people are willing to hit the streets and want something to be done about this issue.

This sort of campaign isn’t that helpful, but is far from useless. Although they may not impact the situation, or if they do, only minutely. But these campaigns create awareness and permeate the reader’s brain, so that if they do indeed feel strongly enough about a certain issue or event, they may eventually take action, rather than be “slacktivists”.


‘Emptiest of empty gestures’: FLOTUS hopes terrorists will live by the promise of hashtag [pic] | Twitchy. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 14 May 2014].

In defense of #BringBackOurGirls and ‘slacktivism’ . [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 14 May 2014].

Invisible Children. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 14 May 2014].

The Grey Area of Clicktivism | Javier Flaim. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 14 May 2014].

Clicktivism is ruining leftist activism | Micah White | Comment is free | . [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 14 May 2014].

Clicktivism: Why social media is not good for charity | SBS News. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 14 May 2014].

Clicktivism is hurting activism: Activism vs Slacktivism Debate – YouTube. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 14 May 2014].

Crisis in Nigeria: #BringBackOurGirls – Yahoo News. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 12 May 2014].

Bring Back Our Girls Facebook Page. Facebook. [ONLINE] Available at Accessed 13 May 2014].






Remixing, mashing and making

Remix culture is definitely on the rise, with millions of parodies, remixed music, mash ups (yep, like gLee) and voice-overs (lip dubs) circling the internet. But how did this come about? Remix culture certainly existed before the likes of computers and the internet, blooming into a phenomenon, which has since evolved.

By combining or editing existing materials to produce a new product, usually by building on copyrighted material, these creators are participating in remix culture, a society that allows and encourages these derivative works. Lessig insists every “time you use a creative work in a digital context, the technology is making a copy”. The improper use of this digital technology on the internet is not under control, as the copyright was previously extended only to professional use. It is also an issue with music, videos, photos, maps and even memes! (That’s right memes are technically illegal)

“We now inhabit a ‘remix culture’, a culture which is dominated by amateur creators – creators who are no longer willing to be passive recipients of content,” recently wrote Australian lawyers from the Queensland University of Technology in their report Mash ups, Remixes and Copyright Law.

The ABC writes that copyright laws – in Australia and overseas – “are not keeping up with the digital era and are stifling creativity.”

Lawrence Lessig writes that children growing up in a world where these technologies permeate their daily life are unable to understand why “remixing” is illegal. Lessig suggests that the improper use of remixes in this digital age cannot be stopped but only ‘criminalized’. The most harmful outcome of this tension is that generations of children are growing up doing what they know is “illegal” and that notion has a longer lasting, detrimental effect far beyond copyright wars.

The free content movement
The strongly held opinion of some that it’s in the public interest to make information free, has been the catalyst for a indefinite movement that’s pushing for information and material to be more accessible. around 44 million websites link to the Creative Commons website which ” provides copyright licences to facilitate sharing and reuse of creative content”

One of the biggest issues in this fundamentalist debate is what artists, creators and inventors get back from handing their work over for the public good. protecting the rights of copyright owners is a big task.
Creating music, video or online content from unauthorised samples or mashups is STILL illegal. What will happen next?

Remix: Making Art and Commerce Thrive in the Hybrid Economy : Lawrence Lessig : Free Download & Streaming : Internet Archive. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 11 May 2014].

Mean Disney Girls – YouTube. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 11 May 2014].

Remix culture: a rights nightmare – Indepth – Catapult – ABC Online. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 11 May 2014].

Creative Commons Australia. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 11 May 2014].


Pokemon rocks on like Geodude

“By design, Pokemon unfolds across games, television programs, films, and books, with no media privileged over any other” Henry Jenkins

Transmedia, basically means sharing one thing across a myriad of mediums to continue engaging the audience or “represents a process where integral elements of a fiction get dispersed systematically across multiple delivery channels for the purpose of creating a unified and coordinated entertainment experience”,”one story scattered over many channels”. My chosen technology, the Nintendo Wii, is not capable of supplying distribution channels that would contribute meaningfully to a transmedia narrative. Continue reading “Pokemon rocks on like Geodude”

Wii Online


“Produsage refers to the type of user-led content creation that takes place in a variety of online environments” Reconfiguring the relationship between technology and its audience, the Nintendo Wii is a perfect example of the notion of produsage (Bruns, 2007). This term refers to the invitation for all consumers to be produsers of knowledge and endorses audiences to collaborate, create and contribute.

  • Organizational shift – The content is not only contributed by an individual, but by collaboration of a diverse range of users.  The material is open to be improved upon by consumers and producers
  • Fluid movement – The passing of information from the producer to the consumer and vice versa
  • Unfinished – Content is unfinished and in a continuous process of development.
  • Permissive – content is treated as common property and each individual will be recognized for their contribution

Open Participation:

The creation of content is frequently done by a number of different users rather than one single author. A notable feature of the console is WiiConnect24, which enables it to receive messages and updates over the Internet while in standby mode. This means that the device is always updating and thus, never a finished system, supporting Bruns’ theory of unfinished content. The produsage environment often encourages collaborative engagement by having preconfigured tools or architectural structures that enables a open discussion about the material. Players of the Nintendo Wii can partake in discussion online in forums using the Internet feature on the console, the players are enabled to discuss the Nintendo Wii setup and in-game knowledge that they are able to share.

Because the user and the producer both collaborate to create to improve the efficiency of the console, constantly creating updates, this means the console is becoming more efficient and open content. Produsage media platforms are revolutionary in the way information is accumulated and improved. The Nintendo Wii works in such a way that it creates a shared knowledge base, which then supports a faster development of society through updates.


Bruns, Axel. “Produsage: Towards a Broader Framework for User-Led Content Creation.” Eprints. QUT, 2007. Web. 22 Apr. 2014. <Produsage: Towards a Broader Framework for User-Led Content Creation>.

Media Briefing Speech. E3 2006 : Nintendo. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 04 May 2014].


Caitlyn Ellender

Game Over

The Nintendo Wii, with “Gaming experiences for everyone”, have a large variety of accessories such as the nun chuk, balance board, wheel and zapper. The Balance Board, which is designed to be compatible with the game WiiFit, was inspired by sumo wrestlers. The Wii is much more than just a console, becoming a platform for reading the news, uploading photos, using wi-fi, playing music, losing weight and much more, converging television, video games and internet all into one console. In doing so, almost like a computer, this brings all these media forms together to create the ultimate media convergence console. Jenkins stated that media convergence “is more than simply a technological shift. Convergence alters the relationship between existing technologies, industries, markets, genres and audiences.” – (Jenkins 2004, p. 34)

The Wii design has been altered many times over the years, changing from a vertical positioning to horizontal, bringing “cohesion between the two machines” and the console not playing GameCube Games, being the biggest difference. This can be related to point 9 of Tensions and Points of Conflict (Jenkins 2004, p. 41) “Re-engaging citizens” as this change was due to feedback from consumers and lack of GameCube game use. Since the original console ceased production at the end of 2013, a new console, the Wii U has been released. “Nintendo has failed to rekindle that same magic with the console’s follow-up, the Wii U” creating a point of tension to produce more high demand games such as Super Mario.


Iwata Asks. 2014. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 01 April 2014].

The Wii Gets a Redesign. Wii Kisses GameCube Goodbye.. 2011.  [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 01 April 2014].

Game over: Nintendo ends production of the original Wii | The Verge. 2013. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 01 April 2014].

Nintendo sold just 160,000 Wii U systems worldwide last quarter | The Verge. 2014. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 01 April 2014].

Nintendo Copyrighting LetsPlay

In the gaming community, Nintendo has recently been dubbed “Nintendont” due to their copyright claims on Youtube’s LetsPlay videos. LetsPlay is “essentially a full play through of any game with commentary from the person playing and it’s a good representation of what you can expect from a game before you purchase it.” Youtube has now agreed for Nintendo to display their own ads on these videos, allowing for no ad revenue for the youtuber and instead, the money going straight to the copyright holder, Nintendo. This has upset many users of the user-generated platform, leading to a decrease in these LetsPlay videos. Zack Scott, the popular YouTuber who informed the world about Nintendo’s restrictions in mid-May, has since stated that Nintendo has since realised how productive these videos were. As they provided advertisement for viewers of their games to the public eye on popular consoles such as the Wii, Nintendo DS and 3DS and new Wii U, the revenue returning to youtubers only 9 days later.


LetsPlay – YouTube. 2014. LetsPlay – YouTube. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 23 March 2014].

Nintendo filing claims to ad revenue on YouTube Let’s Plays | Wii U. 2014. Nintendo filing claims to ad revenue on YouTube Let’s Plays | Wii U. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 23 March 2014].

Nintendo seems to be reversing its Let’s Play copyright claim policy | Wii U. 2014. Nintendo seems to be reversing its Let’s Play copyright claim policy | Wii U. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 23 March 2014].

Nintendo May Have Eased Off On Its Claims To ‘Let’s Play’ Ad Revenues – Nintendo Life. 2014. Nintendo May Have Eased Off On Its Claims To ‘Let’s Play’ Ad Revenues – Nintendo Life. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 23 March 2014].

Nintendo’s Turn For a 180? ‘Let’s Play’ Drama Might Have Happy Ending. 2014. Nintendo’s Turn For a 180? ‘Let’s Play’ Drama Might Have Happy Ending. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 23 March 2014].